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United States of America

Indigenous people lived in what is now the USA for thousands of years before European Colonists began to arrive mainly from England, after 1600.
The Spanish, also, had small settlements in Florida and the Southwest. The French had their own settlements too, along Mississippi River and the Golf Coast.


 

Culture


Summary of the history of the USA

By the 1770’s 13 British Colonies contained 2.5 million people along the Atlantic Coast, east of the Appalachian Mountains.

In the 1760’s the British government imposed a series of heavy taxes ignoring the American argument that any new taxes had to be approved first by the people.
The resistance (especially the Boston Tea Party in 1774, or the destruction of the tea in Boston, when the demonstrators destroyed an entire shipment of tea sent by the East India Company, creating with this revolutionary act an emblematic event in American history) led to punitive laws by Parliament, designed to end the self-government in Massachusetts. The American Patriots (as they were calling themselves) adhered to a political ideology called republicanism that emphasized civic duty, virtue and opposition to corruption and fancy luxuries.

 

 

The thirteen British colonies united to a congress that called on them to write new state constitutions. After armed conflict began in Massachusetts, the Patriots drove the Royal officials out of every colony and created new local governments which empowered their delegates in Congress, a fact which led to the Declaration of Independence. In 1778 the Congress declared that there was a new independent nation, The United States of America, and not just a collection of colonies.
 


With military and financial support from France and military leadership by George Washington, the American Patriots rebelled against British Rule and succeeded in the Revolutionary war.

The first constitution of the new country (The Articles of Confederation) was practically the new constitution, but soon it was proved insufficient, since it had no authority to collect taxes and had no executive officer. In 1789, a new constitution was adopted and in 1791 a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights. With Washington as the Union’s first president, a strong central government was created.

When Thomas Jefferson became president, he purchased the Louisiana territory from France doubling the size of the USA. A second and final war with Britain was fought in 1812.
 


The federal territory soon expanded all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Population growth was rapid too, reaching 7,2 million in 1810 and through the years 321 million in 2010. Economic growth followed, although the military power of America was quite limited in peacetime before 1940.

Regardless of the prosperity of the new nation, the expansion of slavery was increasingly controversial and fuelled political and constitutional battles, which were resolved with compromises.
Slavery was abolished in all states north of the Mason Dixon line by 1804, but the South continued to profit from illegal slavery, since the slaves coming from Africa were offering very cheap working hands and there was big demand for cotton exports in Europe.

The 1860 presidential election of Republican Abraham Lincoln was on a platform of ending the expansion of slavery and putting it on a path to extinction.
 


Seven cotton based deep South slave states founded the Confederacy which was declaring their secession from the USA months before of Lincoln’s inauguration. An intense American Civil war broke then (1861-1865). It was fought largely in the South and resulted to the restoration of the Union, the impoverishment of the South and the abolition of slavery.

In the Reconstruction era (1863-1877) legal and voting rights were extended to the freed slave. The national Government emerged much stronger and because of the Fourteenth Amendment it gained the explicit duty to protect the individual rights. However, when the white Democrats regained their power in the South they maintained white supremacy and new constitutions that prevented most African Americans and many poor whites from voting. This situation continued for decades until gains of the civil right movement in the 1960s and passage of federal legislation to enforce constitutional rights.
 


The United States became the world’s leading industrial power at the turn of the 20th century due to an outburst of entrepreneurship in the Northeast and Midwest and the arrival of millions of immigrant workers and farmers from Europe.
 


The national railroad network was completed with the work of the Chinese immigrants and large scale mining and factories industrialized the Northeast and Midwest.
 


Mass dissatisfaction with corruption and inefficiency stimulated the Progressive Movement (a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the country. The presidents Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson brought intense social and political change in American society), from 1890s to 1920s.

The 16nth and the 17nth amendments in the year 1913 established the first national income tax and direct election of US senators to Congress. In 1920 the 19th amendment to the Constitution guaranteed women’s suffrage (the right to vote).

Initially neutral to the World War I, the US declared war on Germany in 1917 and later funded the Allied Victory the following year.

After a prosperous decade in the twenties, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 marked on the onset- long world-wide Great Depression.

 


Democratic President Franklin Roosevelt ended the Republican Dominance of the White House and implemented his New Deal programs for relief, recovery, reform, support, Social Security and minimum wages. The New Deal defined the Modern American Liberalism.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, on December 7 1941, the USA entered the War World II along with Britain, Soviet Union, China and smaller Allies. The US financed the Allied war effort and helped defeat Nazi Germany in Europe. It also defeated Japan in the Pacific War. However the American use of the newly invented atomic bombs on Japanese cities remains controversial in present days.

The USA and the Soviet Union emerged as rival superpowers in the years that followed the World War II. During the period of the Cold War confronted each other indirectly in the arms race, the Space race, proxy wars and propaganda. US foreign policy was built around the support of Western Europe in order to stop the spread of Communism. This led to the US’ involvement in the wars of Korea and Vietnam.

In the 60s in large part due to the strength of the Civil Rights Movement, another wave of social reforms were enacted by enforcing the constitutional rights of voting and freedom of movement to African Americans and other racial minorities. Native American activism also rose.

The Cold war ended when the Soviet Union officially dissolved in 1991, leaving the US as the world’s only superpower. As the 21st century began, international conflict centered around the Middle East following the September 11 attacks on the USA in 2001.

In 2008 the US had its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, which has been followed by slower than usual rates of economic growth during the last years.


Diversity and cultural elements 

The USA is an ethnically and racially diverse country, a continent in reality, with its own unique social and cultural characteristics such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine and folklore. The diversity is the result of a large scale migration from many ethnically and racially different countries throughout its history.

A strand of what we may describe as American culture started its formation over 10.000 years ago with the migration of Paleo Indians from Asia, on the late Pleistocene Period. Those were big animal hunters who crossed the Bering Strait from Eurasia into North America, into Alaska.

Scientific evidence links Indigenous Americans to Asian people, specifically eastern Siberian populations.

The early European influences came from English settlers of colonial America during British rule.

Due to colonial ties with Britain that spread the English language, British culture, legal system and other cultural inheritances had a formative influence. Other important influences came from other parts of Europe, especially Germany.

American culture includes conservative and liberal elements, scientific and religious competitiveness, materialistic and moral elements. It has a variety of expression due to its geographical scale and demographic diversity.

It also includes elements that evolved from Indigenous Americans and other ethnic cultures_ African American culture, Latin American culture and Asian American culture.

Many American cultural elements, especially from popular culture, have spread across the globe through modern mass media.
Due to the extend of American culture there are many unique social subcultures within USA.
However, beginning in the 60s and continuing on in the present day, the country trends towards cultural pluralism and is considered a “melting pot” of various civilizations, in reality.


Languages

More than 97% of Americans can speak English well, although the US has no official language at the federal level.
Spanish is the primary spoken language in Puerto Rico and New Mexico.
At the numerous Indian reservations, several Native languages are spoken too.

The percentage of total population’s native languages in the USA is the following:
English 82%
Spanish 11%
Other Indo European languages 3.8%
Other Asian or Pacific Islander languages 2.7%
Other languages 0,7%


USA Constitution

It was created in September 17 1787 and came into force in 1789. It has been amended 27 times. The first 10 amendments, known collectively as the Bill of rights offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the power of government. The majority of the 17 later amendments expand individual rights protection.
At 7 articles and 27 amendments it is the shortest written constitution in force. Its first 3 articles entrench the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the Federal government is divided into 3 branches. The legislative, consisting of the bi cameral congress, the executive, consisting of the President and the Judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts.

The Constitution of the USA is the first constitution of its kind, adapted by the people’s representatives for an expansive nation. It has influenced strongly the constitutions of many other nations.


Founding Fathers of the USA

The term refers broadly to the individuals of the 13 British colonies who led to the American Revolution against the authority of the British Crown and established the USA. It is also used more narrowly referring specifically to those who either signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 or were delegates to the Constitutional Convention (1787).
Historian Richard B Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key founding Fathers: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington.
 


Mayflower

It was the ship that transported the first English Separatists, known as Pilgrims, from Plymouth to the New World in 1620.
There were 102 passengers and the crue is estimated to have been about 30 members.
 



This voyage has become an iconic story of the earliest American history and it has a great impact on all Americans since it is believed that those first pioneers had somehow conceived the meaning of Democracy and had worked together right from the start, contributing for the welfare of the whole community.


The Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty is a sculpt of huge size, which impersonates Freedom as a female figure holding on her right hand a torch and on her left a plate on which is written the date 4rth of July 1776, Day of Independence of the USA. The statue stands predominantly on the Liberty Island, at the entrance of the New York’s port.
It was a present of the French people to the American people. It was constructed by Frederique Bartholdi and the study of the static structure was done by engineer Gustave Eiffel.
The statue weighs 228,456 tones and its height along with its basement is 93 meters.
At its basement is hosted the Immigration Museum. The statue is a Monument of Universal Heritage of UNESCO since 1972. 
 

   



Native Americans

In the USA Native Americans are considered to be people whose pre-Columbian ancestors were indigenous to the lands within the nation’s modern boundaries.
The differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence and social disruption. Even before the European settlement of what is now the USA, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with European diseases spread throughout America by the Spanish to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations
 


After the 13 colonies revolted against England and established the United States of America, George Washington and Henry Knox conceived the idea of “civilizing” the Native Americans in preparation for assimilation as US citizens. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations. Expansion of European-American populations to the West after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands, warfare between the groups and rising tensions. In 1830 the US Congress passed the Indian Removal Act authorizing the Government to relocate the Native Americans from their homelands within established states, to lands west to the Mississippi River. This resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes with the brutal forced marches coming to be known as the Trail of Tears. A series of Indian Wars were frequent until the 1890, since the Native Americans carried out resistance to the US. In the 20th century the US forced a series of treaties and land sessions by the tribes and established reservations for them in many western states. US agents encouraged Native Americans to adopt European style farming but that kind of agricultural technology was inadequate for often dry reservation lands, leading to mass starvation. In 1924 they were granted citizenship by the Congress.

Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with US because they can be members of nations, tribes and bands with sovereignty and treaty rights. Cultural activism since late 60s has increased political participation and led to an expansion of efforts to teach and preserve indigenous languages for younger generations and to establish a greater cultural infrastructure.

In 2009 “an apology to the Native people of the US” was included in the defense appropriation act. It states that the US “apologizes on behalf of the people of the US to all Native peoples for the many instances of violence, maltreatment and neglect inflicted on Native peoples by citizens of the US”.
Today there are 4,119,301 Native Americans in the US and most of them belong to Alaska Native tribes. Other tribal groups are the: Apache, Navajo, Black feet, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Comanche, Cree, Creek, Crow, Sioux, Seminole, Shoshone, Iroquois and others.


Fine Arts

In the late 18nth and early 19th centuries, American artists primarily painted landscapes and portraits in realistic style. Developments in Modern Art in Europe came to America from exhibitions in New York, such as the Armory show in 1913. After World War II New York emerged as the centre of the artwork. Painting in the US today covers a vast range of styles. American painting includes works by Jackson Pollock, John Singer Sargent and Norman Rockwell, among many others.
 

                                                                          Norman Rockwell
 

Architecture

Architecture in the US is regionally diverse and has been shaped by many external forces, not only English. It is rather eclectic something that does not come as a surprise in such a multicolor society. In the absence of a single large scale architectural influence from indigenous people, generations of designers have incorporated influences from around the world. Currently the overriding theme of American architecture is modernity as manifest the skyscrapers of the 20th century.( A classic example of such modernity is the Empire State Building in New York. It was completed in 1931 and it was the tallest building in the world for nearly 40 years). The Tower Building, designed by Bradford Gilbert and built in 1889 is considered to be the first skyscraper built in New York City.
 


Early Neoclassicism, which was accompanying the Founding Fathers idealization of European Enlightenment, made it the predominant architectural style for public buildings and large manors. However, in recent years, suburbanization and mass migration to the Sun Belt has allowed architecture to reflect a Mediterranean style as well.


Theater

Theater of the US is based on the western tradition and did not take on a unique dramatic identity until the emergence of Eugene O’Neill in the early 20th century, now considered by many to be the father of the American drama. O’Neill is a four time winner of the Pulitzer Prize and the only American playwright to have won the Nobel Prize for literature. After O’Neill, American drama flourished with great representatives like Arthur Miller, Tennessee Williams, Lillian Hellman, William Inge and Clifford Odets during the first half of the 20th century. In 1960 Edward Albee brought some new modern elements into the American theatre. Writers such as Lorraine Hansbury, August Wilson, David Mamet and Tony Kushner have all won Pulitzer Prizes for their polemical plays on American society.

US is also the home and the largest exporter of modern musical theatre producing many bright talents, such as Rodgers and Hammerstein, Lerner and Loewe, Cole Porter, Leonard Bernstein, George and Ira Gershwin and Stephen Sondheim.

Broadway is one of the largest theatre communities and also the epicenter of American commercial theatre.
 


Cinema

The cinema of the US often referred to as Hollywood has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. Since the 20s the American film industry has grossed more money every year than that of any other country. In the legendary studios of Warner Bros, MGM, Fox, RKO, Paramount, Universal Studios, United Artists and Columbia Pictures have been born some of the masterpieces that have been seen by millions of people all over the world.

The history of the American Cinema can be separated into three main periods. The silent film era, the classical Hollywood Cinema and the New Hollywood.

The silent film era lasted from 1894 to 1929. Famous and very profitable films of that period were the: The Birth of a Nation, The four Horsemen of Apocalypse, The Hunchback of Notre Dame and many others. Lilian Gish, Theda Bara, Rodolfo Valentino, William Haines and many others were the super stars of the time.
 


The Classical Hollywood Cinema era characterized American cinema from 1927 to 1960. Many great films emerged from this period and the one that can be perfectly characterized as the absolute masterpiece was the film Citizen Kane directed by the extremely talented Orson Welles. At this era we have the appearance of many great directors like Howard Hawks, Alfred Hitchcock and Frank Kapra. All time classic films were filmed during that period such as Gone with Wind, The Wizard of Oz, It’s a Wonderful Life, From Here to Eternity, Ben Hur, Rebecca, Casablanca and many others. Real stars were capturing the hearts of the audiences all over the world, like Elizabeth Taylor, Vivian Lee, Charlton Easton, Judy Garland, Ingrid Bergman, Humphrey Bogart, Gregory Peck and so many others…
 


The New Hollywood era or the American New Wave starts from the mid sixties to the early eighties and is characterized by the predominant role of the director rather that the studio producer. It has influences from the French cinema, from the Italian Cinema, the Japanese cinema, the art film and the experimental film. The greatest change that the new film makers brought to Hollywood was a new closeness to everyday life. Films like the Easy Rider and Bonnie and Clyde feature anti-establishment political themes and are targeting to an audience of youngsters which is doing its own “revolution” through political and social movements and expresses itself with rock music, while searches for new ideas to identify itself with.

Directors that mark this period are Woody Allen, Mel Brooks, Bob Fosse, David Lynch, Steven Spielberg, Martin Scorsese, Stanley Kubrick and many others that brought a real revolution to Hollywood. Famous actors of that period are John Travolta, Peter Fonda, Harrison Ford, Jack Nickolson, Warren Beatty, Faye Danaway, Angelica Huston, Meryl Streep and many others.
 

  

                                Woody Allen                                                           Steven Spielberg      


In current days Hollywood experiments with productions of lower budgets, with the exception of some successful sequel movies like Harry Potter or the Lord of the Rings, searching new ways of expression and adapting mainly naturalism or realism as main forms of art.


Literature

America’s first internationally popular writers were James Fenimore Cooper and Washington Irving in the early 19th century. They painted an American literary landscape full of humor and adventure. Twain and James are considered to be amongst the most important American writers, although there are many that follow and extremely important with a huge impact on the style and the writing of many modern authors globally. It is rather necessary to mention that they are 11 American writers who have wan the Nobel Prize and that itself is a statement of how important the American literature is.

1930: Sinclair Lewis
1936: Eugene O’Neill
1938: Pearl Buck
1948: T.S. Eliot
1949: William Faulkner
1954: Ernest Hemingway
1962: John Steinbeck
1976: Saul Bellow
1978: Isaac Bashevis Singer
1987: Joseph Brodsky
1993: Tony Morrison

 

  

                                  John Steinbeck                                                                   Ernest Hemingway      
 

Music

American music styles and influences (such as rock and roll, jazz, rock, teckno, country, hip hop, rap) and music based on them can be heard all over the world. Music in the US is diverse. It includes African American influence in the 20th century. The first half of this century is famous for jazz introduced by African Americans in the South. In the 60’s, 70’s 80’s and 90’s rock was prevalent.

 

Sports

Sports in the US is an important part of the country’s culture. The 4 major professional sports leagues are Major League Baseball, the National Basket Association, the National Football League and the National Hokey League.

American athletes have won a total of 2.570 medals at the Summer Olympic Games and another 253 at the winter Olympics.
Americans also enjoy a lot Rodeo, skateboarding, surfing, horse racing, swimming, mountain biking, bowling, snowboarding.

Some of the most famous athletes of all time in America are the following: Michael Jordan, Muhhamed Ali, Tiger Woods, Babe Ruth, Jesse Owens, Jackie Robinson, Carl Lewis and Martin Phelps
 

  
 

Science

Early North American Science: Benjamin Franklin was the first American scientist who conducted a series of experiments that deepened human understanding of electricity. Other important scientist of that era were: Thomas Jefferson, David Rittenhouse (astronomer), Benjamin Rush (medical scientist), Charles Wilson Peale (natural historian).

Science immigration: Among the many scientists who emigrated to the New World were: Alexander Graham Bell (patented and developed telephone), Vladimir Zworykin (knowledge of x-rays, first patent on a television system), Nikola Tesla, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Wernher Von Braun (he worked on the first rocket program to reach outer space and later on sat on the head of the NASA center). Robert Goddard was one of the first scientists to experiment with rocket propulsion systems.

Along with physics and chemistry Americans have also dominated the area of physiology and medicine. USA has in total 331 Nobel Prize winners and the majority of them were scientists of Physics, Chemistry and Physiology.

 

Museums  

There are hundreds of museums in the USA but among the most important ones and worth visiting are the following:

Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
National Gallery of Art (Washington D.C)
Museum of Modern Art (New York City)
J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California)
Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago, Illinois)
Museum of Fine Arts (Boston)
De Young Museum (San Francisco)
Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Los Angeles)
Solomon R, Guggenheim Museum (New York City)
Smithsonian
American Art Museum (Washington D.C)
 

 
 


Music culture


The music culture of USA is practically a multicultural mosaic, a melt pot of music influences, formed by the particularity of its geopolitical map. The various ethnicities, the customs, the traditions, the religions and the social classes with their diversity played a significant role to what we call today as Music Culture of the USA.

The Native Americans, the settlers from Europe and also the slaves, brought from West Africa in the 19th century, formed the various, diverse and extremely interesting music genres which influenced, to a certain extend, the world globally.

Music Genres:
Blues, Jazz, Country, Soul, Folk, Blue Grass, Hip Hop, Pop, Rock
Punk

Music Categories:
Spiritual (religious) Music: Gospels

Native Music: Native American, Anglo-American, African, Celtic, Latin, Cajun-Creole, Hawaiian, music of other communities (Jewish, North European, South European).

Gospel:
Basically they were spiritual hymns sang by the slaves, who originated from countries of West Africa, mainly. Gospel influenced, to a certain extend, all the music genres in the USA. The most important representative of this kind of music is considered to be Mahalia Jackson.



The most significant music genres in USA

Blues:
It has strong influences from Jazz, Ragtime, country and gospel.

Chicago Blues: The most important representatives of Chicago’s blues are the: Muddy Waters, Little Walter. Chuck Berry, during 50s, influenced strongly many of the rock musicians that followed.

Jazz:
It has influences from the African musical culture and also from subsequent Afro-American traditions. It started from New Orleans-Louisiana. Louis Armstrong and Earl Hines were practically the creators of swing, which the youth at the time was identified with and doubted for first time the established social order. Dizzie Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Billie Holiday and Ella Fitzgerald are also some of the most famous talented people of that time, as far as jazz is concerned.
 


Country music:
This is mainly folk music from the Appalachian Mountains with influences from Ireland’s and Britain’s music. Hawaiian music has contributed to the country music too. In the beginning, country music was a specific music genre which was expressing the daily life and the problems faced by the working class, or the class of the cow boys, who were mainly “white”, but eventually it had a wide appeal to lots of Americans, regardless of their social class. The music instruments that are mainly used are the banjo (which originates from West Africa), the violin and the guitar (which originate from Europe). Representatives: Johny Cash, Randy Travis, Hank Williams.
 


R&B.  
It appeared, first, based on jazz and Afro-American rhythms, during 40s’. It also accepted Afro Cuban influences, while it was used later on by rock bands, like the Rolling Stones (British Rhythm and Blues). With the years passing by, it got its today’s form (Contemporary R&B). More or less, many great artists embodied it to their own music, but the pioneers were: Louis Jordan, T-Bone Walker, Big Joe Turner, Fats Domino and Ray Charles.


Soul music:
It was born by a combination of R&B and Gospel. It is an extremely popular music genre, with James Brown as its main representative. This particular kind of music was served perfectly and with enormous success by globally famous artists, who are indeed irreplaceable, like Michael Jackson, Tina Turner and Whitney Huston.

 

Rock:
It has its roots in Blues, R&B, and country music, but it has also been influenced by musical techniques originating from the Caribbean and Latin America. It became widely and enthusiastically accepted firstly in urban areas, due to the “multi-culti” population which was to be found there. Elvis Presley provoked frenzy to the youth at the time and  shocked the older generations by introducing basically the “black” music to the classes of the conservative “whites”. Rock music became the symbol of a whole generation for a better world, a way to protect the people from the injustice and the war. This kind of peaceful revolution reached its peak at Woodstock (15-17 August 1969). Almost half a million of people were gathered there to listen to their beloved music and to see their favourite bands and artists. Amongst the musicians that appeared on stage were: Joan Baez, Santana, Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, Jimmy Hendrix, Joe Cocker, Jefferson Airplane, The Who, Doors, Eagles.

Since then, rock music progressed, took many different forms and followed new trends. The rock musicians are far too many to be mentioned here, but it’s worthy mentioning at least Bruce Springsteen, Bon Jovi and Metallica too, since they all represent a different kind of rock expression. Rock music defined, to a certain extend, America’s music culture.  
   




The cuisine of the USA


The cuisine of the US reflects the country’s diversity and history. It is a “melt pot” of  foods and ingredients coming from different ethnicities with their own unique cultures. Each region has its own characteristics when it comes to local or traditional dishes. Americans have managed to create an extremely interesting “fusion cuisine” by borrowing gastronomic creations from all over the world and combining them in an excellent way. The result is impressive and the US cuisine is considered to be one of the most rich and interesting globally. Apart from the famous turkey (served in Thanksgivings, one of the most celebrated days of the year in America) the apple pie (trademark of the US) and the various stakes and burgers it is worth mentioning some specific dishes that originate from various regions and are popular all over the world.

New England clam chowder:
It is a soup containing clams and broth, diced potatoes, onions and celery. Carrot strips and a garnish of parsley are used mainly for color. It is a very popular Bostonian dish but it comes in many variations all over America.
 

Lobster rolls:
It is a typical dish that can be found in Maine. It consists of lobster meat mixed with mayonnaise and chopped vegetables served in a grilled hot dog roll.
 

Eggs Benedict:
It is an American breakfast dish, found mainly in New York, with poached eggs and hollandaise sauce served with smoked salmon.

Crab cake:
It is a fish cake composed of crab meat, milk, mayonnaise, eggs and seasoning. Sometimes are used also colorful peppers for its preparation. The cake is sautéed, baked, grilled or broiled and then served. It is to be found in New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland.
 

Gumbo:
A meat or seafood soup or stew thickened with okra. It is a typical dish of Louisiana
 

She-crab soup:
A seafood soup made with blue crab meat mixed with heavy cream and dry cherry. A typical dish of Charleston, South Carolina.
 


Cob salad:
A garden salad made from iceberg lettuce, endives, crisp bacon, grilled chicken breast, hard boiled egg, avocado, chives, Roquefort cheese and red wine vinaigrette. A classic dish of Los Angeles.
 

Jambalaya:
A dish of rice and meat (often a combination of sausage, chicken and shrimp) cooked with vegetables and aromatic spices. A typical dish of Louisianna.
 


Clams casino:
A clam served on a half clamshell topped with bread cramps and crumbled bacon and broiled. A dish of Rhode Island.
 


Chicken Divan:
A chicken casserole usually served with broccoli, almonds and Mornay sauce. A popular dish in New York City.
 


Succotash:
A chunky dish that consists primarily of sweet corn and beans, tomatoes and sweet red peppers. This dish comes from Pennsylvania.

 

Deserts

Hummingbird cake:
A banana – pineapple spice cake that has been a tradition in Southern cuisine since the mid 20th century.
 

Pecan pie:
A sweet pie made primarily with corn syrup and pecan nuts, very popular in the Southern States.
 

Whoopie pie:
A baked product made of two round mound shaped pieces of chocolate cake with a sweet creamy filling or frosting sandwiched between them. Popular in Maine and Pennsylvania.
 

Key lime pie:
A pie made with key lime juice, egg yolk, sweetened condensed milk with a meringue topping. A desert that comes from Key West, Florida.
 


Boston cream pie:
A cake that is filled with custard or cream filling and frosted with chocolate.  It is the national desert of Massachusetts.
  

 

                                                                                                                                                                        Lefki